Gd powders are air sensitive and can be easily oxidized in normal atmosphere. It is necessary to assess how much of the metallic powders are oxidized if placed in air.
In the figure below, the X-ray diffraction pattern of a Gd powder sample prepared by inert gas condensation method is analyzed. The measurement was carried out on a SmartLab diffractometer with a graphite monochromator on the detector side. The pattern clearly contains significant signal from Gd2O3, indicating severe oxidization has occurred at the surface of the Gd particles. In addition, a minor phase, GdN, is also identified. Through whole pattern fitting, the percentage amount of each phase is determined, as shown in the inset of the figure.