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Winter 2020, Volume 36, No. 1


Winter 2020, Vol.36, No.1

Characterization of lithium-ion battery materials with SmartLab

Yuji Shiramata and Takayuki Konya

Because lithium-ion batteries have higher energy density than other secondary batteries, it has been possible to make them smaller and lighter. This has enabled them to spread rapidly as power sources for mobile devices such as laptop computers and cellular phones. The demand for lithium-ion batteries keeps growing relentlessly and...

PDF analysis using X-ray total scattering —Theory and application examples

Masatsugu Yoshimoto and Yuji Shiramata

In recent years, pair distribution function (PDF) analysis has been used to characterize material structure in a wide research field. H. Kim reported the reduction mechanism in the reversible hydrogen storage capacity of V1-xTix alloys. B. Li et al., reported the mechanisms of the thermoelectric effect and...

Cement analysis by X-ray diffractometry

Atsushi Ohbuchi and Takahiro Kuzumaki

Cement is used as a raw material in the construction of buildings, tunnels, dams, and bridges. Basically, cement consists of clinker, calcium sulfate hydrate as a plaster component, aggregate, and water. The four major components of cement have different characteristics of time for hardening and strengthening of the cement; for...

Evaluation of MEMS device materials by X-ray fluorescence spectrometers for thin films

Yu Aoki

In the manufacturing process of semiconductor products, thin film inspection methods vary depending on the purpose. For example, optical such as ellipsometers, sheet resistance film thickness meters, step meters, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are used for film thickness management. For analysis of composition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or...

Application of the nano3DX X-ray microscope to biological specimens

Naoki Kunishima

Structural biology aims to understand life from observation of relevant biological structures and then to extend that knowledge to advance medicine, pharmaceutical development and so on. Because biological systems generally have hierarchical structures, the observation of biological systems varies in size range whether one is looking at tissue level structures...

Thermomechanical analyzer with refrigerated cooling unit - Thermo plus EVO2 TMA8311/LR

In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for non-liquid nitrogen based cooling systems in thermal analysis because of environmental considerations and usability. Especially in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), refrigerated cooling unit is often used. Using the Rigaku DSC, low temperature measurements from −90°C can be carried out. This...